LOVE OF PAN & ECHO
Homeric Hymn 19 to Pan (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C7th - 4th B.C.) :
"[Pan] sounds his note, playng sweet and low on his pipes of reed . . . while Ekho (Echo) wails about the mountain-top."
Philostratus the Elder, Imagines 2. 11 (trans. Fairbanks) (Greek rhetorician C3rd A.D.) :
"[Description of an ancient Greek painting:] [Country Nymphai have captured Pan. To teach him a lesson they have bound him with ropes and shorn off his beard and they say that they will persuade Ekho (Echo) to scorn him and no longer even to answer his call."
Callistratus, Descriptions 1 (trans. Fairbanks) (Greek rhetorician C4th A.D.) :
"[From a description of a sculptural group:] There was a certain cave near Thebes in Egypt which resembled a shepherd's pipe . . . In it was set up an image of a Satyros wrought in marble . . . [holding] a flute in his hand . . . [The] Satyros is unkempt, as of a mountain spirit (daimon oreios) that leaps in honour of Dionysos . . . Pan stood beside him, delighting in the music of the flute and embracing Ekho (Echo), in fear, I suppose, lest the flute set in motion some musical sound and induce the Nymphe to make an echoing response to the Satyros."
Ptolemy Hephaestion, New History Book 6 (summary from Photius, Myriobiblon 190) (trans. Pearse) (Greek mythographer C1st to C2nd A.D.) :
"It is said that there was born also a son of Zeus and the Lamia CALLED Akhilleus (Achilles); he was of an irresistable beauty and like others was the object of a competition, he carried it then to the judgement of Pan. Aphrodite was irritated [by his judgement] and placed in the heart of Pan the love of Ekho (Echo) [i.e. a love which was doomed]."
Apuleius, The Golden Ass 5. 25 ff (trans. Walsh) (Roman novel C2nd A.D.) :
"The rustic god Pan chanced to be sitting at that moment on the brow of the stream, holding the mountain deity Echo in his arms, and teaching her to repeat after him all kinds of songs."
Nonnus, Dionysiaca 6. 257 ff ff (trans. Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A.D.) :
"The sea rose [during the great deluge] until Nereides became Oreiades on the hills over the woodland. O poor thing! Maid Ekho (Echo) had to swim with unpractised hands, and she felt a new fear for that old maiden zone--Pan she had escaped, but she might be caught by Poseidon! . . . Nereus on his travels met rock-loving Pan on a submerged hill, the rock-dweller left his sea and changed it for the hill, leaving the waterlogged pan's-pipes that floated."
Nonnus, Dionysiaca 6. 300 ff :
"Then Pan [during the great Deluge] well soaked saw [the Nereis] Galateia swimming under a neighbouring wavebeaten rock, and sang out: ‘Where are you going, Galateia? Have you given up sea for hills? Perhaps you are looking for the love-song Kyklops (Cyclops)? I pray you by the Paphian [Aphrodite], and by your Polyphemos--you know the weight of desire, do not hide from me if you have noticed my mountainranging Ekho (Echo) swimming by the rocks! Does she course through the wet like you? Does she also sit on a dolphin of Aphrodite the sea-goddess, my own Ekho navigating like Thetis unveiled? I fear the dangerous waves of the deep may have startled her, poor thing! She has left the hills and moves restless over the waves. Ekho once the maid of the rocks will show herself as the maid of the waters. Come, leave your Polyphemos, the laggard! If you like, I will lift you upon my own back and save you. The roaring flood does not overwhelm me; if I like I can mount to the starry sky on my goatish feet!’
He spoke, and Galateia said in reply: ‘My dear Pan, carry your own Ekho through the waves--she knows nothing of the sea. Don't waste your time in asking me why I am going here this day. I have another and higher voyage which Rainy Zeus and found me. Let be the song of Kyklops, though it is sweet. I seek no more the Sikelian (Sicilian) Sea; I am terrified at this tremendous flood, and I care nothing for Polyphemos.’
With these words, she passed away from the lair of wayfaring Pan."
Nonnus, Dionysiaca 15. 306 ff :
"A pretty thing, your Pan piping the Paphian's [Aphrodite's] tune! Often he chanted Eros (Love), and never became Ekho's (Echo's) bridegroom."
Nonnus, Dionysiaca 16. 289 ff :
"Goatherd Pan cried out: ‘I wish my father had taught me the trick of that matchmaking wine! I wish I could be lord of the mindtripping grape, like Bakkhos (Bacchus)! Then I should have seen that cruel maiden Ekho (Echo), asleep and well drunken! Then I should have achieved my love, which like a gadfly sends me gadding afar! Farewell to this pasturage! For while I water my sheep here by a neighbouring spring, Dionysos draws intractable Nymphai to marriage by means of his tippler's river! He has invented a medicine for Eros--his plant : away with the goat's milk, away with the milk of my ewes! For that cannot bring sleep to desire, nor a maiden to marriage. I alone, Kythereia [Aphrodite], must suffer. Alas for love! Syrinx [transformed into a reed] escaped from Pan's marriage and left him without a bride, and now she [the pipes made from the plant] cries Euoi to the newly-made marriage of Dionysos with melodies unasked; while Syrinx gives voice, and to crown all, Ekho chimes in with her familiar note. O Dionysos, charmer of mortals, shepherd of the bridal intoxication! you alone happy, because when the Nymphe denied, you found out wine, love's helper to deck out the marriage!’
Such were the words of Pan, in sorrow for his thwarted desire."
Nonnus, Dionysiaca 39. 125 ff :
"The host-assembling syrinx mingled its piercing tones, and Pan's answering Ekho (Echo) came from the sea with faint warlike whispers instead of her rocky voice."
Nonnus, Dionysiaca 42. 196 & 257 ff :
"Seeking a sweet medicine for love, he [Dionysos in love with Beroe] disclosed to bushybreasted Pan in words full of passion the unsleeping constraint of his desire, and craved advice to defend him against love. Horned Pan laughed aloud, when he heard the firebreathing torments of Bakkhos (Bacchus), but, a luckless lover himself, heartbroken he pitied one unhappy in love, and gave him love-advice; it was a small alleviation of his own love to see another burnt with a spark from the same quiver: ‘We are companions in suffering, friend Bakkhos, and I pity your feelings. How comes it that bold Love has conquered you too? If I dare to say so, Eros has emptied his quiver on me and Dionysos. But I will tell you the multifarious ways of deception in love . . . Sing the erratic course of Ekho (Echo) [loved by Pan], and the answering note of the goddess who never fails to speak, for these two despised the desire of gods.’"
Nonnus, Dionysiaca 45. 174 ff :
"Melodious Pan sat beside herds of goats or sheepcoates playing his tune on the assembled reeds, . . . imitating Ekho (Echo) returned the sounds of his pipes . . . prattler as she was whose lips which were wont to sound with the pipe of Pan never silent."
Nonnus, Dionysiaca 48. 489 ff :
"I am like lovelorn Pan, when the girl flees me swift as the WIND, and wanders, treading the wilderness with boot more agile than Ekho never see! You are happy, Pan, much more than Bromios, for during your search you have found a physic for love in a mindbewitching voice. Ekho (Echo) follows your tones and returns them, moving from place to place, and utters a sound of speaking like your voice."
Nonnus, Dionysiaca 48. 670 ff :
"She [Aura after being raped in her sleep] killed the goatherds, killed their whole flocks of goats, in agony of heart, because she had seen Pan the dangerous lover with a face like some shaggy goat; for she felt quite sure that shepherd Pan tormented with desire for Ekho (Echo) had violated her asleep."
Suidas s.v. Iynx (trans. Suda On Line) (Byzantine Greek lexicon C10th A.D.) :
"Iynx . . . was the daughter of Ekho (Echo)." [N.B. Presumably Pan was the father.]
Ovid, Metamorphoses 1. 689 ff (trans. Melville) (Roman epic C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) :
"Once there lived on the cold mountainsides of Arcadia a Naias, who among the Hamadryades Nonacrinae (of lofty Nonacris) was the most renowned. Syrinx the Nymphae called her. Many a time she foiled the chasing Satyri and those gods who haunt the shady copses and the coverts of the lush countryside. In her pursuits--and in her chastity--Syrinx revered Ortygia [Artemis]; girt like her she well might seem, so easy to mistake, Diana's [Artemis'] self, were not her bow of horn, Latonia's [Artemis'] GOLD.
Indeed she was mistaken. Pan returning from Mount Lycaeus, crowned with his wreath of pine, saw Syrinx once and said--‘but what he said remained to tell, and how the scornful Nympha fled through the wilderness and came at last to Ladon's peaceful sandy stream, and there, her flight barred by the river, begged her Sorores Liquidae (Watery Sisters) to change her; and, when Pan thought he had captured her, he held instead only the tall marsh reeds, and, while he sighed, the soft wind stirring in the reeds sent forth a thin and plaintive sound; and he, entranced by this new music and its witching tones, cried ‘You and I shall stay in unison!’
And waxed together reeds of different lengths and made the pipes that keep his darling's name."
Nonnus, Dionysiaca 16. 289 ff (trans. Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A.D.) :
"And one of the lovemad Satyroi (Satyrs) in a thicket hard by . . . declaimed thus: ‘Horned Pan, still running alone after Aphrodite? When will you too be a bridegroom, for Ekho (Echo) whom you chase? Will you ever bring off a trick like this [i.e. Dionysos tricked a nymphe with wine], to aid, and abet you in your nuptials never consummated? Become a gardener too instead of herdsman, my dear Pan; forswear you shepherd's cudgel, leave oxen and sheep among the rocks--what will herdsmen do for you?’ . . .
Not yet had his words ended, when goatherd Pan cried out: ‘. . . Alas for love! Syrinx escaped from Pan's marriage and left him without a bride, and now [i.e. after she was transformed into the reed from which pipes are made] she cries Euoi to the newly-made marriage of Dionysos with melodies unasked; while Syrinx gives voice, and to crown all, Ekho chimes in with her familiar note.’"
Nonnus, Dionysiaca 42. 363 ff :
"You know how Syrinx disregarded fiery Kythera [Aphrodite], and what price she paid for her too-great pride and love for virginity; how she turned into a plant with reedy growth substituted for her own, when she had fled from Pan's love, and how she still sings Pan's desire!"